Rabu, 14 Juli 2010

Squid tube

Hi guys, today i want to share about Squid tube!. Squid tube - New gonatid squid tube

I came up with this color combination and really like the results. Sometimes when I experiment, the results are less than satisfying, but these turned out O.K. I can't wait to fish them when the salmon snag-fest is over in the river.

Tube: plastic or whatever 1" long
Tag: silver tinsel
Butt: fluorescent green
Tail: Dyed pink golden pheasant wing fibers
Body: spun in dubbing loop purple and then blue SLF
Hackle: Magenta saddle followed by dyed pink golden pheasant
Wing: blue and pink angel hair like stuff woodlander gave me, followed by light blue arctic fox, topped by black arctic fox

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Squid Magnetometer

Hi guys, today i want to share about Squid Magnetometer!. Squid Magnetometer that include at least two SQUID loops, each of which is composed of at least two Josephson Junctions connected in parallel with superconducting wires, are provided. The SQUID loops are fabricated such that they share a common Josephson Junction. Devices and application that employ the multiple SQUID magnetometers are also provided.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] This invention relates generally to SQUID magnetometers that include multiple SQUID loops with a shared Josephson Junction and to methods and applications that make use of such magnetometers.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Magnetometers are devices used to measure magnetic fields. Magnetometers based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are among the most sensitive devices for measuring small magnetic fields. A conventional DC SQUID consists of two parallel Josephson Junctions disposed along a superconducting loop. These devices convert magnetic flux threading the superconducting loop into a quantity (e.g., current or voltage) that may be measured by an associated electronic stage.

[0003] Recently, advances in the field of nanotechnology have driven the search for SQUID magnetometers capable of detecting magnetic flux changes associated with nanoscale molecules and objects. See John Gallop, Superconductor Science and Technology, 16, 1575-1582 (2003) and Ling Hao et al., Superconductor Science and Technology, 16, 1479-1482 (2003). In one instance, a SQUID loop smaller than 1 .mu.m has been used to measure the flipping of 1000 electron spins. See M. Jamet, W. Wernsdorfer, C. Thirion, D. Mailly, V. Dupuis, P. Melinon and A. Peres, Physical Review Letters, 86, 4676 (2001). Unfortunately, the sensitivity of SQUID magnetometers has been limited by the residual noise in these devices.

[0004] At low temperatures, the limiting noise is thought to be the circulating noise currents in the SQUID loop. These noise currents would prevent the noise energy in a SQUID from being smaller than /2, where h=2 .pi. is Planck's constant, as discussed in John Gallop, Superconductor Science and Technology, 16, 1575-1582 (2003) and Ling Hao et al., Superconductor Science and Technology, 16, 1479-1482 (2003). This means that a change in magnetic field associated with an energy change of 0.5.times.10.sup.-34 J is the minimum change that could be detected by a SQUID in a 1 Hz bandwidth. A bandwidth of 1 Hz corresponds approximately to a measurement time of 1 second. In practice that measurements longer than 1 second do not improve the sensitivity, as 1/f noise becomes larger.

[0005] In theory, an ideal SQUID magnetometer could be used to measure the change in magnetic field associated with a change in the nuclear spin of a single proton. In a strong magnetic field, the nuclear spin of a proton is in one of two states, separated by an energy difference of .DELTA.E=.gamma.B,

[0006] where B is the applied magnetic field and the proton has a gyromagnetic ratio of .gamma.=26.75.times.10.sup.7 rad.sup.-1 T.sup.-1. Increasing B increases the energy difference, .DELTA.E, but SQUIDs cannot function in magnetic fields that are too large. Niobium SQUIDs can be used at .about.0.01 T, where the energy difference of a proton spin flip is .DELTA.E=.apprxeq.2.7.times.10.sup.-28 J. See, for example, Tsuyoshi Tajima, Proceedings of 8.sup.th European Particle Accelerator Conference, http://apt.lanl.gov/documents/pdfLA-UR-02-3042.pdf; E. M. Forgan, S. J. Levett, P. G. Kealey, R. Cubitt, C. D. Dewhurst and D. Fort, Physical Review Letters, 88, 167003, 2002; and H. R. Kerchner, D. K. Christen and S. T. Sekula, Physical Review B, 21, 86 (1980). The highest coupling of a spin to the SQUID is achieved when the spin lies on the Josephson Junction. In this case, up to half of the magnetic flux is coupled, so the maximum energy detected by the SQUID as a result of the spin flip would fall to 1.3.times.10.sup.-28 J. Under these ideal conditions, a SQUID could be used to measure a single nuclear spin flip, with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of >10.sup.6.

[0007] SQUIDs have been reported with a noise energy of 3 . See, for example, D. J. Van Harlingen, R. H. Koch and J. Clarke, App. Phys. Lett. 41, 197 (1982). However, a need exists for a SQUID magnetometer in which there is good coupling between the flux from a magnetic particle and the magnetometer. When this improved coupling is achieved, the need arises to increase the SQUID sensitivity further, for demanding applications such as single-molecule NMR.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] The present invention provides SQUID magnetometers having increased sensitivity to changes in the magnetic fields associated with very small objects and, in particular, objects having dimensions smaller than the width of the semiconductor wires of their SQUID loops. Such objects include nanoscale objects, such as nanoparticles and biomolecules (e.g., proteins).

[0009] In their basic embodiment the SQUID magnetometers include at least two SQUID loops, each of which is composed of at least two Josephson Junctions connected in parallel with superconducting wires. The SQUID loops are fabricated to share a common Josephson Junction and superconducting wire. In this construction the circulating noise currents in each SQUID loop are different, but the loops can be synchronized such that the signal from an event along the common superconducting wire may be recorded at the same time by both loops. The correlated signal from the simultaneous measurements taken by both SQUID loops provides a measure of the magnetic field on this shared wire with a sensitivity that is much greater than the sensitivity provided by either SQUID loop operating independently. These devices may be used to study the magnetic properties of very small systems, particularly systems having dimensions smaller than the superconducting wires. In some embodiments, the multiple SQUID magnetometers may be used to measure the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of a single molecule, such as a protein. The ability to measure the magnetic properties of a single molecule or particle is important because it avoids complications due to distributions of particles shapes, sizes and orientations that are present in larger samples.

[0010] A number of variations may be developed from this basic construction. For example, in some embodiments the SQUID magnetometers may include a plurality of SQUID loops (e.g., three or more) with each SQUID loop sharing a common Josephson Junction and superconducting wire. In these embodiments the sensitivity of the correlated signal may be improved by adding additional SQUID loops. In some embodiments the SQUID loops will include three Josephson Junctions. In such embodiments, independent current biasing of the SQUID loops may be accomplished by applying a separate bias current to each SQUID loop.

[0011] In another embodiment the present invention provides an array of SQUID loops. In this array, each SQUID loop shares a common Josephson Junction and superconducting wire with each of its neighbouring SQUID loops in the array. By coupling a sample that acts as a qubit to each common Josephson Junction in the array, the array of SQUID loops may be used as quantum computer. This can be understood as follows: A molecule, such as an endohedral fullerene (e.g., N@C.sub.60--a nitrogen atom encapsulated in a C.sub.60 Buckyball), on a common Josephson Junction between two SQUID loops should behave as an electron-spin qubit. The spin state of the qubit may be initialized and subsequently manipulated with a magnetic field applied across the SQUID loops. Qubit manipulation would be controlled by the application of electromagnetic pulses. Finally the change in magnetic flux associated with the change in spin state may be measured with the SQUID magnetometer. Interactions mediated by the normal electrons in the superconductor may provide coupling between the qubits along the array and make it possible to scale the system up to a quantum computer.

[0012] Further objects, features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0013] FIG. 1A is a circuit diagram showing the design of a double SQUID magnetometer. The noise is different for both SQUID loops, but the signal from a sample (represented by a small dark circle) on the common Josephson Junction is the same for both loops.

[0014] FIG. 1B is a circuit diagram showing the design of a double SQUID magnetometer with independent current biasing of each SQUID loop.

[0015] FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram showing the voltage measured by an event (e.g., a spin flip) generated by a sample coupled to the common Josephson Junction of the double SQUID magnetometer shown in FIG. 1. The upper signal represents the voltage measured across the first SQUID loop. The middle signal represents the voltage measured across the second SQUID loop. The lower signal represents the correlated signal, which may be found by adding or multiplying the voltage signals from the first and second SQUID loops.

[0016] FIG. 3A. is a circuit diagram showing the design of a four loop SQUID magnetometer.

[0017] FIG. 3B is a circuit diagram showing the design of a four loop SQUID magnetometer with independent current biasing of each SQUID loop.

[0018] FIG. 4A is a circuit diagram showing the design of a six loop SQUID magnetometer. (The non-superconducting wires and other circuitry are not shown for clarity.)

[0019] FIG. 4B is a circuit diagram showing the design of a six SQUID magnetometer adapted for independent current biasing of each SQUID loop. (The non-superconducting wires and other circuitry are not shown for clarity.)

[0020] FIG. 5. a) Flux lines of a magnetic dipole in free space. b) Flux can be trapped if the dipole is inside a bulk superconductor. c) A small hole in the superconductor may allow the flux to escape. The dipole is shown schematically in the centre of the hole, but it could be on the inner surface of the hole.

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Free Download Squid Guard

Hi guys, today i want to share about Free Download Squid Guard!. A web based management tool for the Squid Guard proxy filter. Manages requests to whitelist blocked sites. Developed using Django.



Free Download Squid Guard:

Get a Free Download Squid Guard Now - Current version: 1.4

New Features Squid Guard 1.4:
New Features:

* Added mysql support for authentication based on a patch from Chris Fletcher (thank you). Tested with MySQL 5.0. (bug 19)
* Added a runtime option to switch the progress bar and off.
The default behaviour of squidGuard has been switch back to showing no progress bar. To switch on the progress bar use the runtime option -b.
* Added a runtime option to prevent squidGuard from falling into emergeny mode when something with the update of the blacklists goes wrong (patch by Chris Pates and Iain Fothegill of the CLEO Systems at Lancaster University, thank you). If you use the runtime option -P and the creation of the db files fail, squidGuard simply writes an error message but continues. Make sure to test this option before using it in production environments.
* Rewrite of the sample script squidGuard.cgi. The language related part has been exported to babel files (one for each language) and the layout has been modified in a way that it is a bit more nice to the eyes and easier to change.
If you are going to use the new script make sure to either copy the babel files into your script directory or change the location of the babel files within squidGuard.cgi.
* Stopped downloading the documentation from www.squidguard.org. The docs are now updated with the package not by "calling home".
* Added Spanish translation to squidGuard.cgi (thank you, Samuel García for the translation). (bug 26).

Changes to configure options:

* NEW: --with-mysql
Use MySQL support. Configure will look in /usr and /usr/local for the installation of MySQL.
* CHANGED: --with-nolog=yes
This replaces the old configure option "--nolog".
* CHANGED: --with-squiduser=
This replaces the old configure option "-u=" and "--squiduser=", respectively.

Bug Fixes:

* Reduced "noise" of progress bar.
* Moved output of the progress bar from stdout to stderr since squid was complaining about this "input". (bug 39)
* Fixed an issue with redirect statements that use a "˜" in the url. (bug 23)
* Fixed an issue with squidGuard craching when urls ended in "://". (bug40)
* Fixed issue with perl warnings about deprecated usage of hash syntax by rewriting squidGuard.cgi as stated above. (bug 37)
* Fixed the bypass vulnerability with trailing dots in domain names. This only affects squidGuard when used with squid version 3. (bug 38)
* Fixed issue that on some systems y.tab.c and y.tab.h were not properly created although bison was installed. Updated the prepared files as well. (bug 34)
* Fixed an issue with a forgotten check for the existance of the configuration directory: The "make install" command now tests if the directory of the configuration file exists. If it does not exist, the directory is created. (bug 35)
* Fixed an issue that the prepared flex file was not copied when flex is not installed. Now, if no flex/lex is found during the configure run, "make" checks again and copies the prepared file now fine. (bug 31)
* Fixed configure.in to give the proper configure file when running autoconf. As a result the syntax of a couple of configure options had to be changed (see above).
* Fixed broken "make test". (bug 17)

Available patches for Squid Guard version 1.4:

* Patch-20091015: Fixes a buffer overflow problem and prevents squidGuard from going into emergency mode when overlong URLs are encountered (they can be perfectly legal). See the Readme file for details about applying the patch.
* Patch-20091019: Fixes two bypass problems with URLs having a length closed to the defined MAX_BUF value (4096). See the Readme file for details about applying the patch.

Available patches for Squid Guard version 1.3:

* Patch-20071117: Fixes a problem with the progress bar creating too much output when run in an cronjob or similar. See the Readme file for details about applying the patch.
* Patch-20080613: Fixes a problem with trailing dots in domain names. Relevant when running squid version 3.0 STABLE1 to at least STABLE5. See the Readme file and the advisory SG-2008-06-13 for details about applying the patch.
* Patch-20080714: Fixes two problems: The output of the progress bar went to squid which complained about that. Secondly, when an URL was requested, that ended with "://" squidGuard crashed. See the Readme file for details about applying the patch.
* Patch-20091015: Fixes a buffer overflow problem and prevents squidGuard from going into emergency mode when overlong URLs are encountered (they can be perfectly legal). See the Readme file for details about applying the patch.
* Patch-20091019: Fixes two bypass problems with URLs having a length closed to the defined MAX_BUF value (4096). See the Readme file for details about applying the patch.

In work for version 1.5:

* LDAP authentication based on ip addresses.
* Syslog support.
* Further enhancements and bug fixes.

Note: After the release of 1.5 there will be an interims release with no new features. It is necessary to tidy up the source code and this will be done as soon as 1.5 is final.

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Selasa, 06 Juli 2010

Millsberry: Rules, Tips, Codes, Cheats and Millsberry Money Cheat

Millsberry is a virtual city run by General Mills as an integrated online environment and marketing tool. There are shops, homes, special events, and a gazette. New features are constantly being added. and today i want to share about Millsberry, ya Millsberry Rules, Answer, Tips, Codes, Cheats and Millsberry Money Cheat!.

Introduction Of Millsberry

Now I'm going to show you a video all about Millsberry.


Answer for Millsberry Science Competition

1.What is Mercury's most well-known feature? Caloris Basin
2.What is the point of the planet closest to the sun? Subsolar point
3.What planet is closest to Earth in size? Venus
4.What two moons orbit Mars? Phobos and Deimos
5.Saturn is famous for its_____. Set of over a thousand ring
6.Mercury's core is mostly made up of: Metal
7.A day on _____ is longer than the planet's year. Venus
8.On Mars, which polar cap is larger and colder? Northern
9.What is the cause of tremendous heat on Venus? The thick atmosphere and clouds
10.True or False: Mars has liquid water. False
11.Venus is named after the Roman goddess of _____. Love and Beauty
12.The reddish color of Mars comes from all the _____ in its soil. Iron
13.Jupiter is mostly made up of _____? Hydrogen and Helium
14.True or False: Jupiter has rings. True
15.True or false: Saturn rotates more quickly than Earth. True
16.Scientists think that Europa may have _____? An underground ocean
17.What planet has a density less than water? Saturn
18.Saturn takes _____ Earth years to orbit the sun. 29.5
19. What is Jupiter's most well-known feature? The Great Red Spot
20.The yellow bands on Saturn are formed by _____. Crystallized ammonia
21.Comets contain lots of _____. Ice
22._____ are often called "minor planets." Asteroids
23.The Great White Spot is a storm that lasts _____. A Month
24.What three planets rotate in the opposite direction of all the other planets? Venus, Uranus, and Pluto
25.The Milky Way is a _____ galaxy. Spiral
26.Comet tails are made mostly of _____. Gas
27.True or False: the Milky Way is the smallest galaxy in the Local Group. False
28.What is the closest planet to the sun? Mercury
29.When an asteroid is burning up in the Earth's atmosphere, it is called a _____. Meteor
30.A comet's tail points _____. Away from the sun
31.Our solar system is located in the Milky Way arm known as the _____ arm. Orion

Free Items in Millsberry

This guide is for newbies in millsberry.

Free Soccer Ball (once only!)
-Go to the Academy, Hallway, then Gym
-Click any of the soccer balls.
-Coach Danner tells you to have it to practice.

Free 4 surfboards (once only!)
-Play the game and finish three levels, You'll get them without sending your score, continue and get the trophy also without sending your score.

Free Sylvie the Sofa
-Play Wave Blaster and get a score of 1200+ and you'll get one.

Have fun getting them!

Powered by Poptropica and Millsberry.
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